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Internet Marketing and Web Development in Higher Education and other tidbits…

[Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

17 Mar 2010

written by Michael Fienen

[Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

At the end of February, .eduGuru set out to begin another round of research on a trend in higher ed web development. This time, we took a look at the CMSs being used from school to school. Which CMS to use for a university is a question that lingers in forums and on mailing lists frequently, and it’s our hope that you will find the following information helpful in deciding which system will be best for you. Additionally, we’ll be following up with a series of guest articles over the next couple months that will discuss their experience using the top CMSs from this list for their school’s web site. This post will be fairly long in order to review all the data. If you want, you can download the data now and review it on your own (this data has been edited to provide anonymity to the contributors. Additionally, this research is released under a by-sa Creative Commons 3.0 License. It is provided as a zip file with .xls, .pdf, .csv, and .ods formats for your convenience).

There were 144 responses over the first two weeks of March. There are 4146(ish) colleges and universities in the US, however there currently is no metric for how many of those are already using a CMS. Consider the results specific to the US, as even though there were a couple international entries, it was not statistically significant. See the chart below for a break down on campus size.

student enrollment [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

“This is one of the more political and important decisions a university makes. Every system has its benefits and drawbacks, but it is almost impossible to compare systems. This is especially true since you really don’t know the system until you’ve been using it for years, and at that point it is too late to switch or be able to evaluate other products.”
~ Survey comment

The golden question: Which CMS should I use? Well, as you can expect, that’s not a simple thing to answer. As you can see in the chart below, the top four (excluding in house solutions), is spread pretty evenly. OmniUpdate comes out at the top of the list, which isn’t surprising given the length of time they’ve been around, and the fact that they have produced a higher ed targeted, feature rich CMS. The other three – dotCMS, Cascade, and Drupal – run neck and neck, which is interesting, since these three systems are all quite different. But, that does emphasize the point that different schools will have different needs, and will choose a CMS to fit those needs. Always take the time to properly identify what needs and requirements you have before selecting a CMS.

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

PHP and Java rule the roost as programming language, with PHP just barely leading. Together, they make up more than half of what is being used in higher ed. This is good news for those looking to staff up on programmers, since these two languages are also generally in the top four most popular programming languages in general (along with C and C++), meaning applicant pools should be bigger for them. I realized I made a mistake and left Ruby on Rails off the survey, but it turns out that it has definitely not hit the radar, and was written in by only one school. Note: some survey entries were modified for uniformity and to correct incorrect platform language identification.

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

Schools were fairly evenly split in whether or not they had more than one CMS available on campus. Larger schools, with good reason, were more likely to offer multiple CMSs as opposed to small schools. WordPress was one of the most popular secondary CMSs, probably as it sees significant use as a blogging platform, rather than primary site CMS. In fact, the secondary CMS reports showed additional penetration by other open source CMSs as well, like Joomla and Drupal. These systems will generally prove easier to deploy in a supplementary capacity since they usually have shallower learning curves and quicker turnaround times.

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

By and large, schools host their own CMS. I believe this is perfectly reasonable, since we normally have access to heavy iron more than capable of hosting a web server, and we’re connected to pipes with equally available bandwidth. The largest exception was OmniUpdate, which was mainly hosted by the vendor. They made up 75% of the responses that said they were hosted by their vendor. Of OmniUpdate users specifically, only one-third host it themselves. It should be noted, however, that this is intentional on their part.

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

Over half the schools (53%, 58% when unknowns are excluded) host only 5,000 or fewer pages. There was significant dropoff after 100,000 pages. This data roughly mirrors the demographics of survey respondents – 65% were from schools of 10,000 students or less. Small schools are more likely to have fewer pages, 75% have 10,000 pages or fewer versus 51% of large schools.

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

High traffic sites might be concerned about the number of pages they can serve without taxing their hosting resources. Surprisingly, if you serve over one million pageviews in a month, you are in the minority of universities. Note that some systems, such as Cascade, do push publishing to a second server, or others might have something like a Squid proxy running, so the CMS itself isn’t necessarily responsible for serving pages to a visitor. These statistics do not take that difference into account. Also of note, nobody serving over one million pages a month reported using WordPress or Drupal (correction: three different respondents reported using Drupal in cases over 1,000,000 pageviews).

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

One quarter of respondents don’t make usage of their CMS mandatory. About half (47%) do, with another 28% having flexible rules. It would seem the trend definitely is towards trying to get people to use a central system. A slightly higher percentage, 35%, of larger schools don’t make CMS usage mandatory. Otherwise, statistics between large and small schools are relatively similar.

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

An interesting result, there appears to be relative consistency in the number of contributors schools have at each level, with a peak between 101 and 250 users. Only seven systems were being reportedly used with more than 500 users (each with only one vote): Contribute, Luminis, Plone, OpenText, Cascade, Ironpoint, and Drupal. The average satisfaction with a CMS appears to drop over 500 users as well, dropping by half a point among those users.

“Choosing and implementing a CMS can be done within a small organization like ours. However, getting the culture to change to accept distributed ownership of web content is much tougher!”
~ Survey comment

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

Regardless of the reason why, almost three quarters of users surveyed said they’d use the same system again, whether because they just liked it, or because it would be better than risking a switch to a worse system. The rest would either switch because they want a better system, or because options now are better then when they first deployed their current CMS. This metric didn’t take into account those who might be on the fence as to what they would do. Large schools were more likely than both small schools and the average to reuse the same system. Users of Contribute and custom/homegrown CMSs were most likely to want to change (71% and 62% respectively). That doesn’t include Serena Collage users, all of whom would change for obvious reasons (the product is no longer being supported).

“The real answer to the question about whether we would choose the same platform again from us would be: We’d do another analysis before concluding anything. Since we haven’t done that in ~4 years, for now we’d stick with what we have, but if we were really considering things again, we’d spend several months on a market analysis before concluding anything.”
~ Survey comment

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

Overall satisfaction was rated on a scale of 1 to 10. No conditions were set on how to rate the satisfaction, so this is very qualitative. The average score was 7.04. Contribute failed miserably out of all the CMSs (based on a minimum of five schools reporting usage). OmniUpdate took the crown, doing better than a 9 overall. Reason, a PHP based open source CMS developed out of Carleton College, came in second at 8.6, and dotCMS took third at 8.08. Schools using custom or homegrown solutions were more than a point under average, falling below a 6. Smaller schools were more likely to give higher marks to their CMS, though the total average score swing between large and small schools was only about a quarter point.

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage

Top three paid CMSs*:

  1. OmniUpdate
  2. Hannon Hill Cascade
  3. Ektron

* Based on reported satisfaction, minimum 5 ratings

Top three open source CMSs*:

  1. Reason
  2. dotCMS^
  3. Drupal

* Based on reported satisfaction, minimum 5 ratings
^ dotCMS does offer a paid enterprise branch

Top three used CMSs*:

  1. OmniUpdate
  2. dotCMS
  3. Cascade

* Based on number of surveyed schools using them, excluding custom and homegrown CMSs

If you download the raw data, you can read all the comments, pros, and cons people listed with each system. For the sake of brevity, I only included a couple here. This article will be followed up in the coming weeks by several guest posts discussing all the top used CMSs to give you a look inside other people’s experiences. In those posts, we’ll include some of the specific pros and cons that survey respondents submitted. Direct your thoughts and questions in the comments below, and we can continue discussing any of the metrics you’d like to.

88x31 [Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage
[Results] Higher Ed CMS Usage by Michael Fienen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.
Based on a work at doteduguru.com.

The content of this post is licensed: The post is released under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license


About the author

Michael Fienen

For six years, Michael served as the Director of Web Marketing at Pittsburg State University. Currently, he is the Senior Interactive Developer at Aquent and is also CTO for the interactive map provider nuCloud. When it comes to web communication, he focuses very heavily on interpersonal communication components of websites, as well as content considerations that must be taken into account when building usable sites.  He is an active supporter of the dotCMS community, accessibility advocate, consultant, internationally featured speaker on web issues, and general purpose geek who wears many hats.

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This post was written by - who has written 99 posts on .eduGuru


  • http://www.downes.ca Stephen Downes

    This is an interesting post, but I am frustrated by not knowing how many institutions were surveyed, what percentage of the total population this represents, what they were (schools only? colleges too?), when they were surveyed, and where they were surveyed from (U.S. only? Worldwide?). Yes, it’s probably buried in the the zip file containing the data, but this really information should be front and centre, presented first so I know how seriously to take the remainder of the information.

    • http://www.fienen.com/ Michael Fienen

      Well, luckily for you, that is an issue easily remedied. While I can’t necessarily help whether or not you take it seriously, I can certainly give some of those base metrics, which are now at the top of the post.

      On a side note, if anyone is aware of any additional research on the topic specific to higher ed, drop a link to it so I can add that as well.

  • http://utodd.com Todd

    I wish all the time and money spent on Content “Management” Systems was instead dedicated to the “creation” of great content. Putting crap in boxes doesn’t make the stink go away, it just makes it easier to find the source of odor.

    Happy St Patrick’s Day!

    • http://www.fienen.com/ Michael Fienen

      Absolutely true. A CMS will never solve the issue of content quality, it only helps you identify various levels of crap that you have. People frequently make the jump from CMS to distributed content ownership by “content experts”. It *seems* logical. In reality, “content experts” are rarely experts at creating content. When choosing, implementing a CMS, it’s important at the same time to build a logical, coherent content strategy.

  • cliff

    Fienen-

    Well done thanks for the information. This sure beats asking everyone what CMS they use… Which is probably one of the top questions asked of me at a meeting or conference.

    Happy St. Patrick’s Day!

  • http://blog.innogage.com Tom Williams

    Michael, very good information. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to do the data gathering, massaging and visual reporting. I assume you used an online survey tool to do the gathering…what tool did you employ?

    • http://www.fienen.com/ Michael Fienen

      Actually, we just used a Google form for it. I’ve been really impressed with how they are maturing as a product. It’s not quite to the SurveyMonkey level of flexibility, but it’s absolutely useful with proper planning. I plan to continue using it in the future as much as possible.

  • http://silverberry.org Lacy

    Next time for the survey … I’d love to know a little more about the staffing of university web offices.

    Great information … thanks so much for putting this together!

    • http://www.fienen.com/ Michael Fienen

      Staffing itself wasn’t really in the scope of this particular survey, however, you can certainly dig through some of that in one of our past surveys. I think that might have what you are looking for. Give it a look at:
      http://doteduguru.com/id3967-state-of-the-university-web-department-survey-results.html

      We love to hear everyone’s ideas on what you’d like to see us do more research on.

  • http://khrissykhris.wordpress.com/ Khristine

    Michael, great information, thanks for sharing! As for ideas on other research.. Events calendars? Faculty/staff web space, Google sites?

    I’m also a fan of Google Forms! We’ve recently used it for unofficial stuff, like showing our 30+ stakeholders why our homepage looks the way it does (in a roundabout way) http://tinyurl.com/clcpr02

    Lacy, we are currently collecting higher ed web staffing information. If you take the survey and include your information, we’ll share results :)
    http://clcweb.wordpress.com/2010/03/10/staffingsurvey/

  • http://www.amherst.edu David Hamilton

    Either I’m missing something, or there’s a mistake. “Also of note, nobody serving over one million pages a month reported using WordPress or Drupal.”

    The results seem to indicate there are several schools reporting more than a million page views a month served from Drupal, including ours.

    Thanks for pulling this together, lots of great data. Appreciate folks sharing as well.

  • http://www.fienen.com/ Michael Fienen

    Terribly sorry for that mistake. I double checked the data and you are absolutely right, three people are using Drupal in cases over one million page views a month. I have entered a correction into the article about that.

  • http://stlcc,edu George Sackett

    Thank you Michael. I am sorry that I missed my opportunity to contribute to this project. Good work on your part.

    As you know we are a Collage user and need to be looking for a replacement CMS – though I was told last week that even though it was in the budget our IT department does not have time to take on this project AND they will not let anyone else take the lead on it . . . This information will certainly help provide some guidance whenever I can get this project in motion.

  • http://www.facebook.com/JAaronAndersondotcom JAaron Anderson

    Datatel Active Admissions did not make your list at all?

    • http://twitter.com/fienen Michael Fienen

      Strictly speaking, Datatel Active Admissions isn’t a CMS, but rather a component of the Datatel Active Portal system (if my understanding is correct). As a portal, I can’t speak to whether the system is good or bad – but it’s not something one would use for running their main website. For this research, we were looking strictly at the CMS side – the tools schools were using for their public, front facing sites.

      I am planning to do an update to this research before the end of the year.

  • Big_Boob

    Good information … Thanks for your time
    tworzenie stron poznań

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